Overview of Federal Employment Laws

The National Labor Relations Act:

              Protects the right to unionize, and prohibits discrimination for filing a charge of an unfair labor practice.

Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938:

              Provides for a minimum wage, and mandatory overtime.

Title VII, The Civil Rights Act of 1964:

              An employer cannot discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. 

The Civil Rights Act of 1886:

              Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race in the formation of contracts.

The Family Medical Leave Act of 1992:

              Requires the employer to provide allow the employee unpaid leave for medical care, or medical care of a family member.

The Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990:

             Forbids discrimination against people with disabilities.

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967:

             Forbids age discrimination.

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970:

             Protects employees who exercise their rights under the act or participate in legal proceedings against their employer.

The Consumer Protection Act:

             Prohibits job discrimination against an employee who has their wages garnished.

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974:

             Prohibits employers from preventing employees from exercising their rights to employee benefits plans.

The Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970:

             Prohibits discrimination for employees who exercise their rights under the act or participate in proceedings under the act.

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act:

             Prohibits discrimination for employees who initiate or participate in proceedings under the act.

The Jurors Employment Protection Act:

            Prohibits discrimination against those who attend jury service in federal courts.

The Longshormen’s and Harborworkers’ Compensation Act:

            Prohibits discrimination for seeking benefits under the act or for testifying in proceedings under the act.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973:

            Prohibits discrimination of qualified individuals by federal contractors on the basis of handicap or disability.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII):

            Prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

The Equal Pay Act of 1963 (EPA):

            Protects men and woman who perform substantially equal work in the same establishment from sex or gender based wage discrimination.

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967:

            Also known as the "ADEA," it protects employees who are 40 years of age or older. The ADEA protects employees as well as job applicants.

Title I and Title V of the American with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA):

            Prohibits employment discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities in the private sector, and in State and Municipal and other local governments.

Civil Rights Acct of 1991:

            Among many other things, it specifically provides monetary damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination.

The Pregnancy Discrimination Act Amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964:

            Prohibits discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. Woman who are affected by pregnancy related conditions must be treated inthe same mannor as other applicants or employees with similar abilities or limitations.

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ERISA LAWS
ERISA sets minimum standards for participation, vesting, benefit accrual and funding of employee retirement accounts so funds placed in those plans will be there when they retire.

ERISA FAQS
Click here for answers to frequently asked and answered Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) Law questions.

FAMILY LEAVE ACT
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) provides certain employees with up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave per year. It also requires that group health benefits be maintained during the leave. Click here for info on the FMLA.

THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964
Makes it unlawful to refuse to hire, fire or segregate any person from the privileges of employment, because of the individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. 
    
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